History of Internet everyone should know

  • 1969 – the first message is transmitted from SDS Sigma 7 mainframe computer at University of California, Los angeles (UCLA) to an SDS 940 mainframe computer at Stanford Research Institute
  • 1970 – ALOHAnet becomes operational, the first packet radio network, developed by Norman Abramson, University of Hawaii
  • 1972
    • Ray Tomlinson chooses the @ sign to signify the recipient’s destination
    • Larry Roberts writes the first email management program
    • Telnet specification written (RFC 318)
  • 1981 – the TCP and IP protocols are formalized (RFC 793 and RFC 791)
  • 1984 – Domain Name Service (DNS) is introduced
  • 1985 – File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is documented (RFC 765)
  • 1991 – Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau release the specifications for WWW
  • 1993 – the first web browser MOSAIC, is developed by Marc Andreessen at the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana
  • 1995 – the first specification for IPv6 released (RFC 1883)
  • 2011 – the first World IPv6 Day (June 8), including Google, Facebook and Yahoo with more than 1000 other companies participated for a worldwide trial of IPv6


The first packet switching network and predecessor to today’s Internet was the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET), which came to life in 1969 by connecting mainframe computers at four locations. ARPANET was funded by the U.S. Department of Defense for use by universities and research laboratories. Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN) was the contractor that did much of the initial development of the ARPANET, including creating the first router known as an Interface Message Processor (IMP).

In 1973, Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf began work on TCP to develop the next generation of the ARPANET. TCP was designed to replace ARPANET’s current Network Control Program (NCP). In 1978, TCP was divided into two protocols: TCP and IP. Later, other protocols were added to the TCP/IP suite of protocols including Telnet, FTP, DNS, and many others.


Ethernet was a protocol originally developed by Bob Metcalfe at the XEROX Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) in the 1970s. In 1979, Bob Metcalfe formed his own company, 3COM, and worked with Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), Intel, and Xerox to promote the “DIX” standard for Ethernet. In 1985, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published the IEEE 802.3 standard that was almost identical to Ethernet. Today, 802.3 is the common standard used on local-area networks (LANs).

Configure NTP server and client on Vmware ESXi Hypervisor

Priority: Critical

VMware network time synchronization: A walkthrough To configure NTP synchronization, select the host, and on the Configuration tab, select Time Configuration under Software. You’ll now see the existing time synchronization status on that host. Next, click Properties. This selection shows the Time Configuration screen, where you can see the current time on the host. Make sure it’s not too different from the actual time, because a host that’s more than 1,000 seconds is considered “insane” and won’t synchronize. Continue reading

Windows routing – ipconfig and route command

Hi. It’s pretty funny talking about Windows and routing :0, however I need to document how to change a route metric when my Internet is from wireless network but LAN cab;e interface has just been configured by DHCP. In Windows always a network cable connection takes higher priority therefore that interface is assigned with lower metric therefore is used as a default gateway. But this is not always what we need. Please follow this step by step guide to assign a wireless interface as the default ip gateway. Continue reading

IPv4 special addresses of Internet Protocol version 4

IP is the most commonly used communication protocol suite in Internet. Most of us know that this 32bit IP address range has been divided on public and private addresses – what we have at home (private) and what is reachable on Internet (public). But underneath there are more IP pools and not everyone knows that in the IP world there are special address ranges used to cover extra tasks and services provided for us like stream video, routing updates and time updates.

During the exhaustion 32bit ver4 IP pool have changed and the modern division approved by Cisco and Internet Organisations (IEEE and IANA) is the current standard shown below. Continue reading

Hide your IP using ssh socks proxy

Socks proxy using SSH

Tunnelling over our Internet link it sounds already exiting, isn’t it?. But how difficult is it? Do we need any complex and sophisticated configuration of hardware and software? Hmm.. it is not necessary even to involve ipsec or ssl stack to create VPN. SOCKS is built in to OpenSSH so it’s trivial to run SOCKS proxy server with ssh client running with option -D. This option configures SSH client to listen on your local Linux box on specified by us tcp port. Then  we will use SOCKS5 proxy configuration built into most of Internet browsers to connect to.

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