Vagrant is a tool for building complete development environments.
With an easy-to-use workflow and focus on automation, Vagrant lowers development environment setup time, increases development/production parity, and makes the “works on my machine” excuse a relic of the past.
Check your distro most likely Ubuntu version candidate
Download from https://releases.hashicorp.com/vagrant/
wget https://releases.hashicorp.com/vagrant/1.8.1/vagrant_1.8.1_x86_64.deb sudo dpkg -i vagrant_1.8.1_x86_64.deb sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install -f #to resolve missing dependencies if any
Install ruby is recommended as .vagrant file is using it
sudo apt-get install ruby sudo gem install bundler sudo gem update bundler #if update needed
- Create Vagrant project, by creating Vagrantfile in your current directory
- Add boxes (standard VMs from providers in Virtualbox, VMware or Hyper-V format)
vagrant box add hashicorp/precise64 #username: hashicorp boximage: precise64, this is preconfigured repository #Box can be specified via URLs or local file paths, Virtualbox can only nest 32bit machines vagrant box add --force ubuntu/14.04 https://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/vagrant/trusty/current/trusty-server-cloudimg-amd64-vagrant-disk1.box vagrant box add --force ubuntu/14.04-i386 https://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/vagrant/precise/current/precise-server-cloudimg-i386-vagrant-disk1.boxvi
- Configure Vagrantfile to use the box as your base system
Vagrant.configure("2") do |config| config.vm.box = "ubuntu/14.04-i386" end
- Power up your Vagrant box
Timed out while waiting for the machine to boot. This means that Vagrant was unable to communicate with the guest machine within the configured ("config.vm.boot_timeout" value) time period. If you look above, you should be able to see the error(s) that Vagrant had when attempting to connect to the machine. These errors are usually good hints as to what may be wrong. If you're using a custom box, make sure that networking is properly working and you're able to connect to the machine. It is a common problem that networking isn't setup properly in these boxes. Verify that authentication configurations are also setup properly, as well. If the box appears to be booting properly, you may want to increase the timeout ("config.vm.boot_timeout") value.
The error above is due to Virtualbox cannot run nested 64bit virtualbox VM. Spinning up a 64bit VM stops with an error that no 64bit CPU could be found.
piotr@vm-ubuntu64:~/git/vagrant$ vagrant up Bringing machine 'default' up with 'virtualbox' provider... ==> default: Importing base box 'ubuntu/14.04-i386'... ==> default: Matching MAC address for NAT networking... ==> default: Setting the name of the VM: vagrant_default_1456318357740_51238 ==> default: Clearing any previously set forwarded ports... ==> default: Clearing any previously set network interfaces... ==> default: Preparing network interfaces based on configuration... default: Adapter 1: nat ==> default: Forwarding ports... default: 22 (guest) => 2222 (host) (adapter 1) ==> default: Booting VM... ==> default: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes... default: SSH address: 127.0.0.1:2222 default: SSH username: vagrant default: SSH auth method: private key default: Warning: Remote connection disconnect. Retrying... default: Warning: Remote connection disconnect. Retrying... default: default: Vagrant insecure key detected. Vagrant will automatically replace default: this with a newly generated keypair for better security. default: default: Inserting generated public key within guest... default: Removing insecure key from the guest if it's present... default: Key inserted! Disconnecting and reconnecting using new SSH key... ==> default: Machine booted and ready! ==> default: Checking for guest additions in VM... default: The guest additions on this VM do not match the installed version of default: VirtualBox! In most cases this is fine, but in rare cases it can default: prevent things such as shared folders from working properly. If you see default: shared folder errors, please make sure the guest additions within the default: virtual machine match the version of VirtualBox you have installed on default: your host and reload your VM. default: default: Guest Additions Version: 4.1.44 default: VirtualBox Version: 4.3 ==> default: Mounting shared folders... default: /vagrant => /home/piotr/git/vagrant
- Ssh to the box
piotr@vm-ubuntu64:~/git/vagrant$ vagrant ssh vagrant@vagrant-ubuntu-precise-32:~$ w 13:08:35 up 15 min, 1 user, load average: 0.06, 0.31, 0.54 USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT vagrant pts/0 10.0.2.2 13:02 1.00s 4.63s 0.09s w
- Shared directory between Vagrant VM and an hypervisor provider
Vagrant VM shares a directory mounted at /vagrant with the directory on the host containing your Vagrantfile
- Delete Vagrant VM
- Delete downloaded Vagrant VM image file
vagrant box remove
- Build in provisioning
Vagrant can run from shared location script or from inline: Vagrant file shell provisioning commands.
vi ~/git/vagrant/bootstrap.sh #create provisioning script #!/usr/bin/env bash export http_proxy=http://username:firstname.lastname@example.org:8080 export https_proxy=$http_proxy apt-get update apt-get install -y apache2 if ! [ -L /var/www ]; then rm -rf /var/www ln -fs /vagrant /var/www #configures that shared directory will be Apache DocumentRoot directory fi vi ~/git/vagrant/Vagrantfile #configure Vagrant to run this shell script when setting up our machine Vagrant.configure("2") do |config| config.vm.box = "ubuntu/14.04-i386" #the provision line tells Vagrant to use the shell provisioner to setup the machine config.vm.provision :shell, path: "bootstrap.sh" end vagrant up #runs provisioning only once vagrant reload --provision #reloads VM skipping import and runs provisioning vagrant ssh #ssh to VM wget -qO- 127.0.0.1 #test Apache is running on VM
- Provisioners – shell, ansible, ansible_local and more
This section is about using Ansible with Vagrant,
ansible, where Ansible is executed on the Vagrant host *
ansible_local, where Ansible is executed on the Vagrant guest
Specify Ansible as a provisioner in Vagrant file
# # Run Ansible from the Vagrant Host # config.vm.provision "ansible" do |ansible| ansible.playbook = "playbook.yml" end
- Networking – port forwarding
Vagrant can forward any host(hypervisor) TCP port to guest vm specyfing in ~/git/vargant/Vagrant file
config.vm.network :forwarded_port, guest: 80, host: 4567
Reload Vagrant VM
Run on the host from a web browser http://127.0.0.1:4567 to test it.
- Vagrant power states
vagrant suspend– saves the current running state of the machine and stop it
vagrant halt– gracefully shuts down the guest operating system and power down the guest machine
vagrant destroy– removes all traces of the guest machine from your system. It’ll stop the guest machine, power it down, and remove all of the guest hard disks
- Vagrant providers
Vagrant can work with a wide variety of backend providers, such as VMware, AWS, and more without changing Vagrantfile. It’s enough to specify the provider and Vagrant will do the rest:
vagrant up --provider=vmware_fusion vagrant up --provider=aws
Vagrant box images
vagrant box list #list all downloaded boxes
Default path of boxes image
C:\Users\%username%\.vagrant.d\boxes #Windows ~/.vagrant.d/boxes #LInux
Change default path via environment variable